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    Senior Research Scientist

Everything you don't want to know about Hoffman

Robert R. Hoffman, Ph.D. is a Fellow of the American Psychological Society, recipient of a Fulbright Scholar Award, and an Honorary Fellow of The British Library, Eccles Center for American Studies.

He received his B.A., M. A., and Ph.D. in experimental psychology at the University of Cincinnati, where he receivedMcMicken Scholar, Psi Chi, and Delta Tau Kappa Honors. After a Postdoctoral Associateship at the Center for Research on Human Learning at the University of Minnesota, Hoffman joined the faculty of Adelphi University. There, he received awards for outstanding research and service, and also served as Chair of the Institutional Review board and the University Grants Officer. He joined the IHMC as a Research Associate in 1999.

Hoffman's early research was in the area of psycholinguistics, where he helped pioneer the experimental study of the comprehension of figurative language (metaphor, proverbs). His first book, Cognition and Figurative Language, co-edited by his mentor Richard Honeck of the University of Cincinnati, is now regarded as a classic. Hoffman went on to help found the journal, Metaphor and Symbol, for which he remains Associate Editor.

Another focus of Hoffman's early work, an interest that continues to this day, is the psychology and history of science. Hoffman has published analyses of the use of metaphor in science, the history of cognitive psychology and applied psychology, and the philosophy of contextualism.

After his Postdoctoral Associateship, Hoffman's research took an applied direction. Hoffman helped launch an Annual Conference on Applied Experimental Psychology--one of which was the Ebbinghaus Centennial Conference (Gorfein & Hoffman, 1987), and another of which was an initial meeting of what would become the International Society for Ecological Psychology.

Hoffman has been recognized internationally for his research on expertise, on the methodology of knowledge elicitation, and on human factors issues in the design of workstation systems and knowledge-based systems. He is Series Editor for the book Series, "Expertise: Research and Applications."

To realize his goals for research in applied cognitive psychology, Hoffman received grants from the U.S. Army and U. S. Air Force to receive training in remote sensing, including aerial photo interpretation, terrain analysis, radar interpretation, and meteorological satellite image interpretation. Ultimately, Hoffman qualified to teach remote sensing in environmental science, as well as human factors psychology.

Hoffman's most recent experiments have investigated novice and expert interpretation of aerial thermograms and meteorological satellite images. The experiments use judgement, sorting, and recognition tasks in the attempt to reveal what novices and experts perceive in the images, and how they reason. Related to that laboratory work is a series of naturalistic studies ("cognitive work analysis") of the work practice of weather forecasters at the U. S. Navy, at the National Weather Service, and at the Meteorological Office of the United Kingdom.

Another current project involves an effort to define the methodologies for human-centered computing and cognitive technologies.

Hoffman is a member of Human Factors & Ergonomics Society, the American Association for Artificial Intelligence, the Psychonomic Society, the International Society for Ecological Psychology, the American Meteorological Society, and the American Society for Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing.

Hoffman has published widely, in journals including Human Factors, Memory & Cognition, Organizational Behavior & Human Decision Processes, The Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, The Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, Ecological Psychology, Applied Cognitive Psychology, Metaphor and Symbol, The AI Magazine, Weather and Forecasting, and The Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence. He is a member of the Board of Editors for the journals Human Factors and Cognitive Technology.

Hoffman serves as reviewer of grant proposals for The National Science Foundation, NASA, The National Science Research and Engineering Council of Canada, the US. General Accounting Office, the Australian Research Council, and the City University of NY Research Foundation. He has served as consultant to the Evaluation Methods Division of the U. S. General Accounting Office, the Canadian Centre for Remote Sensing, and the Human Factors Group of the NEXRAD Operational Support Facility (NOAA).

In 1994 Hoffman received a Fullbright Scholar Award and was appointed an Honorary Fellow of The British Library Eccles Center for American Studies. In 1995 he was elected Fellow of the American Psychological Society.

Also an award-winning teacher, Hoffman has offered courses in General Psychology, Experimental Psychology Laboratory, Cognitive Psychology, Developmental Psychology, Problem Solving, Psycho-linguistics, Philosophy of Science, Philosophy of Psychology, History of Science, Human Factors, and Remote Sensing.

Hoffman has also worked as a Ranger/Naturalist in the Green Mountains of Vermont and is an accomplished blues drummer. In his spare time he likes to restore Art Deco period furniture.

Selected Publications

Human factor s in the interpretation of remote sensing imagery (due 2000) (with A. B. Markman). New York: Lewis Publishers.

Viewing psychology as a whole (1998) (with M. Sherrick & J. S. Warm). APA Books.

Expertise in context (1996) (with P. Feltovich & K. Ford), MIT Press.

The psychology of expertise: Cognitiv e research and empirical AI (1992). Erlbaum.

Cognition and the symbolic processes: Applied and ecological perspectives (1991) (with D. S. Palermo). Erlbaum.

Learning and memory (1987) (with D. S. Gorfein). Erlbaum.

Cognition and figurative language (1989) (with R. P. Honeck). Erlbaum.

Journal Articles

Hoffman, R. R., & Woods, D. D. (2000). Studying cognitive systems in context. Human Factors, 42, 1-7. Hoffman, R. R., Crandall, B., & Shadbolt, N. (1998). A case study in cognitive task analysis methodology: The Critical Decision Method for the elicitation of expert knowledge. Human Factors , 40 , 254-276

Hoffman, R. R. (1998). AI models of verbal/conceptual analogy. Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence , 10 , 259-286. Hoffman, R. R. (1997). The cognitive psychology of expertise and the domain of interpreting.

Interpreting: The International Journal of Research and Practice in Interpreting, 2, 198-230.

Hoffman, R. R. (1997). How to doom yourself to repeat the past: Some reflections on the history of cognitive technology. Cognitive Technology, 2, 4-15. Hoffman, R. R. (1995, Fall). Monster analogies. The AI Magazine, 16 (3), 11-35.

Hoffman, R. R., Shadbolt, N., Burton, A. M., & Klein, G. A. (1995). Eliciting knowledge from experts: A methodological analysis. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 62, 129-158.

Hoffman, R. R., Detweiler, M. A., Lipton, K., & Conway, J. A. (1993). Considerations in the use of color in meteorological displays.
Weather and Forecasting, 8, 505-518. Hoffman, R. R., & Deffenbacher, K. A. (1993). An analysis of the relations of basic and applied
science. Ecological Psychology, 5, 315-352.

Hoffman, R. R., & Deffenbacher, K. (1992). A brief history of applied cognitive psychology. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 6, 1-48.

Hoffman, R. R. (1991). Human factors psychology in the support of forecasting: The design of advanced meteorological workstations.
Weather and Forecasting, 6, 98-110.

Hoffman, R. R. (1990). Remote perceiving: A step toward a unified science of remote sensing. Geocarto International, 5, 3-13.

Hoffman, R. R., & Conway, J. (1990). Psychological factors in remote sensing: A review of recent research. Geocarto International, 4,

Hoffman, R. R. (1987, Summer). The problem of extracting the knowledge of experts from the perspective of experimental
psychology. The AI Magazine, 8, 53-67.