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    Senior Research Scientist
  William J. Clancey is a Senior Research Scientist in the Institute for Human and Machine Cognition.

Previously, he was at the Institute for Research on Learning in Menlo Park, CA from its founding in 1988 until 1997. He received a Ph.D. in Computer Science at Stanford University in 1979, after graduating Summa Cum Laude in Mathematical Sciences (BA) from Rice University in 1974. Involved in expert systems research in Stanford's Knowledge Systems Lab from the early days of the MYCIN Project in 1975, Dr. Clancey developed some of the earliest AI programs for explanation, the critiquing method of consultation, tutorial discourse, and student modeling. His work on "heuristic classification" and "model construction operators" has been influential in the design of expert systems and instructional programs. He has published five books, including: Knowledge-Based Tutoring (1987), Contemplating Minds: A Forum for Artificial Intelligence (1994, with S. Smoliar and M. Stefik), and Situated Cognition: On Human Knowledge and Computer Representations (1997). He has presented tutorials and keynote addresses in eighteen countries. Dr. Clancey's recent work re-examines the relation of descriptive cognitive theories to human experience and neural processes. In the Brahms multiagent simulation program, he shows how work flows emerge from lower-level descriptions of practice, a tool useful for work systems design and instruction. Dr. Clancey is on an IPA to the NASA Ames Research Center, where he is leading the effort in human-centered computing.